Street art in Glasgow

taxi balloons by  Rogue-one

Mitchell Street‘s Taxi Balloons by Rogue-one


Before visiting Glasgow for the first time, I had a somewhat gloomy and rundown image of the city in my head, yet this preconceived idea was shattered when I arrived at the bustling city on a sunny day.

I was lucky with the weather, so I was able to walk around the city on foot and enjoyed the sights and architecture that the city has to offer. And I was very pleasantly surprised by the wonderful street art that I encountered in different parts of the city, these uplifting and playful works undoubtedly contribute to enhancing the streets of the city.

A majority of the prodigious wall murals in the city were commissioned by the City Council from 2008 onwards. Many renowned local artists took part in the project including Smug and Rogue One. If you are interesting to learn more or follow the official street art trail, you can download the map via this link and visit the Discover Glasgow website.


Rogue one Girl with Magnifying GlassEmoticon Hamlet Giant panda by Klingatron

Top left: Dancing puppets by Rogue One (John Street); Top right: Girl with Magnifying Glass by Smug (Mitchell Street); Bottom left: Emoticon Hamlet by Peter Drew; Bottom right: Giant panda by Klingarton (Mitchell Lane)


The most impressive murals in my opinion are the series of pieces promoting the 2014 Commonwealth Games at the Ingram Street car park. Created in 2013 by Glasgow based Australia street artist Sam Bates a.k.a. Smug, the pieces depict the four seasons in a picturesque Scottish country scene, featuring an array of animals, including his infamous squirrel. The squirrel can also be spotted under the Kelvinbridge subway station (see below).


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Ingram Street car park by Smug


Nearby at the Strathclyde University (on the corner of George Street/North Portland Street), a series of murals named ‘The Wonderwall’ were created by several artists including Art Pistol, Rogue One and Ejek.


Strathclyde University, The Wonderwall Strathclyde University, The WonderwallStrathclyde University, The WonderwallStrathclyde University, The Wonderwall

Strathclyde University, The Wonderwall


There is plenty of work to be explored within the city, so on your next visit to Glasgow, watch out for these cool street art!


Kelvinbridge subway station street artKelvinbridge subway station street artKelvinbridge subway station street artglasgow street art glasgow street artKelvin Walkway

Top three rows: Kelvinbridge subway station street art by Smug & Bottom row: Kelvin Walkway by Smug


Scotland by rail

train ride to scotland

Scenery from somewhere north of England


I am one of those people who would get excited sitting in the front row on the top deck of a double decker bus. And often I would end up sitting next to kids under 10 years of age who are equally excited, though I don’t express my enthusiasm as explicitly as they do.

Hence, I can’t verbally express the joy I feel when I am on a train. Perhaps what I enjoy most is staring out of the moving window while scenery, buildings, animals and people disappear from my peripheral vision. Those fleeting moments are not dissimilar to our experiences in life; one minute it is there and next minute it is gone. Unable to grasp the moment, we can only act as spectators and watch the changing scenery pass us by.

Sometimes people are bemused by my keenness to travel by rail, whereas I am equally bewildered by their eagerness to reach the destinations as fast as possible. I often feel that the most thrilling part of traveling is the journey itself rather than the destination. If time permits, I would always pick the longer and more interesting travel route.


train ride to scotland wind turbineUK aqueduct train ride to scotland train ride to scotland


Months ago when I was planning a trip to Scotland from London, I forwent the cheaper flying option and opted for the more costly and time-consuming train option. The booking process also turned out to be more complex and baffling, it is no wonder many travelers prefer the flying option. It took me days to figure out the routes, but one thing certain was that I wanted to include the Caledonian Sleeper, one of the two remaining sleeper trains in Britain (the other is The Night Riviera from London to Penzance).

Finally, I decided to take the Virgin Crusader from London to Glasgow (5 hours), then from Glasgow to Inverness (3.5 hours), and return back to London via the Caledonian sleeper (12 hours). Even though I had planned and booked almost 3 months in advance, I still had to pay £50 for a reclining seat (vs. £130 for a shared berth) on the Sleeper train. I can’t say that it was a bargain compared to a £30 Easyjet flight.


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Arriving in Glasgow via Virgin Crusader


Out of the three journeys, the most pleasant and comfortable one was the Virgin Crusader. I paid an extra £10 for first class, and it was definitely worth it. The service was attentive, with complimentary food and drinks available throughout the 5 hour journey. However, the scenery is less spectacular than the journey I took to and from Edinburgh via the East Coast two years ago.


preston station aviemorepitlochrystirling stirling station

 Station after station…


For breathtaking scenery, it necessary to travel further north. The journey from Glasgow to Inverness offers some stunning views of the Highlands. The train passes by two significant summits: Drumochter and Slochd, and two viaducts: Culloden and Tomatin. Although it was the end of June at the time of travel, snow on the summits was still clearly visible.



Scenery of the Highlands


My last leg of the train journey was taking the night train from Inverness back to London via the Caledonian Sleeper. The train was surprisingly busy, but I was lucky to have two opposite seats to myself. In terms of comfort level, I would say the seats are similar to most airline’s Premium class seating. Nonetheless, do not expect to sleep well throughout the night especially if you are a light sleeper. I woke up a few times in the middle of the night and watched sunrise hours before the train arrived into London.


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Since March of this year, Serco has commenced a 15-year contract to operate the Caledonian Sleeper between London and Scotland. More than £100m (part-funded by a £60m grant from the Scottish government) will be invested in building 72 state of the art carriages, which will make up four new trains by the summer of 2018.

It will be interesting to see these new trains, and I wonder if they will lure travelers back to rail travel again (given that they will not be too outrageously expensive)? Although British rail travel has passed its heyday, there are still some notable routes that are worth the time, effort and costs. My only advice is this: book early to avoid being charged an arm and a leg!


Hyper Japan summer 2015


Although I have heard a lot about the biannual Hyper Japan festival, a celebration of the Japanese culture, music, food and entertainment, I have never visited this event before. This year, after spending one year learning Japanese, I made friends with a group of people who are interested in the Japanese culture. One of them plays the shamisen (a traditional Japanese three-stringed lute) and performs with the SOAS Min’yo (Japanese folk songs) group, and we were invited to see their performance at the festival. At £17, I thought the ticket was fairly pricey, but I was also curious to see what all the fuss was about.

The venue moved from Earls Court to the bigger O2 showcasing a line-up of musical performers from Japan, in addition to several zones dedicated to the popular gaming and anime titles, Japanese goods (including books, ‘kawaii’ stationery, traditional homeware and fashion accessories etc), as well as Japanese food and drinks.


hyper japan 2015


Upon arrival, I was surprised to find a long queue outside of the venue, it was lucky that we had bought the tickets online beforehand. As expected, the venue was packed esp. in the food court, so we simply picked the shortest queue as I was quite hungry by then (since it took us at least 20 minutes to get from the entrance to the food court).

Walking around, my friends and I were astounded by the prices of the goods at the festival, i.e. a bar of matcha Kit Kat was £5 and 10 onigiri (rice balls with seaweed) was £29! But at the same time, it dawned on me that the popularity of the festival is not so much to do with the food or shopping, it’s all about COSPLAY!

I never realised that the subculture of cosplay is so popular in the UK, and I was utterly dazzled by the idiosyncratic and creative costumes and props seen at the event. I only wished that I had taken more photographs of them. The festival was more like a showcase of cosplayers, it was such an eye-opening experience.


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Top & 2nd left: SOAS MinYo group


After seeing our friend’s folk music and dancing performance, a few of us went to see the finale of the festival, which was the stage performance of, a cult Japanese female idol group from Akihabara, Tokyo. I have never heard of this group before, but my friend who is into Japanese anime informed me that they are a popular Japanese subculture group that is gaining fan base globally.

I fail to find apt words to describe how I felt during the 20 minutes of their performance. What astonished me most was the behaviour of those grown up men there. There were Japanese and Caucasian men (aged between 25-55) shoving, jumping, yelling and perhaps even crying around us. The sight was so surreal that I was left rather speechless, and I was more distracted by them than the performers on stage. The power of these six squeaky-voiced young women is not to be underestimated. If you want to understand the popularity of this J-Pop group, I have included their music video here, but I can assure you that it is not as entertaining and as wacky as seeing them live. Enjoy!


RCA show 2015



Due to traveling and busy schedule, I almost missed the RCA show this year. Luckily, I managed to visit the Kensington campus on the last day of the show, and here are the highlights:


RCA SHOW 2015Alicia NaderAlicia NaderP1140134-compressedUnflats by Li-Hsin LiangUnflats by Li-Hsin Liang Chao Chen

Top: Textiles gallery; 2nd left & middle: Textiles design by Alicia Nader; 3rd & bottom left: ‘Unflats’ by Li-Hsin Liang; Bottom right: Chao Chen


Li-Hsin Liang‘s project ‘Unflats’ explores the diverse ways in which a traditionally flat material such as paper can be deformed: folded, stacked and cut into shapes that adds a different dimension to how we approach methods of craft with the material.

Chao Chen‘s nature-inspired project has created a laminate water-reacting material. The bio-mimicry material detects water and changes shape automatically without mechanical structures or electrical elements. According to different scenarios, the material has been applied to objects related with water, illustrating a purity of functionalism and aesthetics.


Simin Qiu End grainIan Goode's 'About time'studio ilio 12 stoolssand by Studio ayaskan studio ayaskan growth

Top: Simin Qiu’s ‘End grain’; 2nd row: Ian Goode’s ‘About time’; 3rd row: Studio Ilio’s ’12 stools’; Bottom row: Studio Ayaskan’s ‘Sand’ and ‘Growth’


Simin Qiu‘s ‘End grain’ project uses the end grain patterns from off-cut waste wooden materials to create a range of new natural patterns by carefully cutting and gluing. This project is focused on the study of wooden materials. It explores the potential high values of pine and experiments with new and contemporary wood handcraft skills.

Ian Goode‘s ‘About time’ presents a set of timepieces for the future of work and leisure; Pace, Plenty and Play provide a tangible representation for the deduced elements of one’s time. In a future where traditional working models have been superseded by distributed, ad hoc, and potentially confusing working culture, what could clocks reveal about oneself and what impact could they have? ‘About:Time’ is an alternative to traditional hour and minute hands that is designed to reveal the result of our choices; to facilitate reflection and action.

Studio Ilio is a design studio founded by two RCA students Seongil Choi & Fabio Hendry. Their ‘Hot Wire Extensions’ project explores a new way of making that transforms line structures into solid bodies that possess the potential for large-scale production. A nichrome wire structure is placed within a container filled with a material mixture based around waste nylon powder from SLS 3D printing. By putting an electrical current through the wire, the resistance of the wire causes itself to heat up, melting the surrounding material mixture and instantly bonding to create a solid body. As a result, 12 intriguing bone-like stools were created (see above).

Another time-related project is Studio Ayaskan‘s ‘Sand’, an installation inspired by zen garden; it is the gradual formation and flattening of a ripple pattern over a period of twelve hour cycles. Ripples of Time, allow natural materials to be shaped by time, reminding us of its presence. It is very ‘zen’ indeed.

The studio’s other project ‘Growth’ is an origami/geometric pot that transforms and grows with the plant, as the plant itself unfolds over time. Cool.


RCA SHOW 2015 Xiaotian Sun's breathingRiah Naief's Artficial ParadisesMichael Pecirno Oliver Smith's The Network EnsembleIn the Shade of the Stack by Francesco TacchiniJayoon Choi Meng Yang's The Shadows of shadows

Top left: The Stevens building; Top right: Xiaotian Sun’s Breathing; 2nd row: Riah Naief‘s ‘Artficial Paradises’; 3rd left: Michael Pecirno’s Starlore; 3rd right: Oliver Smith’s ‘The Network Ensemble’; 4th row: ‘s ‘In the Shade of the Stack’; Bottom left: Jayoon Choi‘s ‘Hypothesis on ‘Type#R’ Circle of Desire’; Bottom right: Meng Yang’s ‘The Shadows of shadows’


Over in the Stevens building, many visitors were drawn to Xiaotian Sun‘s conspicuous installation on the ground floor. Breathingis an interactive city shelter of urban lifestyle, expressing the relationship between city and its dwellers through the action of breathing. Since breathing is believed to be the simplest way to lower stress level, this city shelter aims to transform anxiety into relief, thus creates a connection between city dwellers and the city.

Michael Pecirno‘s has created a new set of constellations based around the alphabet and air pollution level, an experimental typeface Starlorecan becomes more legible as light pollution levels decrease. It is a fascinating project and the typeface can be downloaded from the designer’s website (click on the name for the link).

Oliver Smith‘s ‘The Network Ensemble’ is a tool to sonically uncover and amplify the invisible territory of the networks that sit between our offline and online experiences. The networks that connect us also surround us, becoming a permanent layer in our everyday environment, a man-made natural force with its own nature and accompanying mystique. It is this force to which the Network Ensemble responds, converting the invisible, airborne communications infrastructure into a sonic experience. It positions the user as an explorer, a network clairvoyant, finding patterns, mapping the territory and experiencing an active, hidden world through sound.

One of the most interactive projects at the show was Meng Yang‘s ‘The Shadows of shadows’. The project aims to offer an interactive space to discuss the relation of three relevant concepts by reversing the world of shadows and ourselves. People in the darkness become their shadows, peeping and behaving themselves among the others in the light. Self-awareness is supposed to be awakened by peeling off, layer by layer, the excessive awareness of our surroundings.


New Designers 2015 (Part 2)

new designers 2015


A delayed entry on the New Designers 2015, the annual design graduation show that took place on 6th-9th July at the Islington Business centre. As usual, it was a fantastic opportunity to spot new talents and meet them in person. Here are just some of the highlights from the Part 2 of the show, which focused on graphic design, illustration, product and industrial design, furniture, spatial design, animation and digital arts.




anam henna rashid Mu Hau Kao 'Ply Stool' Jacob UnderwoodJohn Lewis talk Xiang Yin's Hill sofanew designersMelanie Egert'Twenty-OneSixty' by Robert PygottJacob Underwood Fiero

Top left: Anam Henna Rashid; Top right: Mu Hau Kao’s ‘Ply Stool’; 2nd row: Jacob Underwood; 3rd left: A talk by the furniture designer at John Lewis; 3rd right: Xiang Yin‘s Hill sofa; Bottom left: Melanie Egert; Bottom middle: ‘Twenty-OneSixty’ by Robert Pygott; Bottom right: Fiero stacking char


Mu Hau Kao‘s ‘Ply Stool’ project won him the 100% design award at the show. His nature-inspired and minimal stool conveys the motto: “Less is more”. The stool is made of one sheet of wood and the process was revealed at his stand, where visitors could learn more about the concept and production method.

Jacob Underwood is another award winner, his Fiero Stacking Chair won the the BCFA award for its contemporary interpretation of traditional ercol values. The chair is simple and refined in the way that it stacks. More chairs can be stacked because of the lack of under frame, thus leaving less void between each chair. It is the subtle details that makes this chair stand out.

Due to my passion for Islamic geometric design, I was thrilled to see Anam Henna Rashid‘s personalised geometric furniture range. Customers can choose from six geometric patterns, colour combinations, wood type and fabric to create something unique to suit their tastes.




Gareth Renninson Jaw.M Designmanon mcevoy shell lampdominik williams' helix lampSaki Yokota

Top left: Gareth Renninson’s Candela; Top right: Jaw.M Design; Bottom left: Manon Mcevoy’s Shell lamp; Bottom middle: Dominik Williams’ cardboard Helix lamp; Bottom right: Saki Yokota’s mobile lighting mimics movements of the sun


Contemporary lighting plays a vital role in the design and consumer market these days, the industry has come a long way in the past few decades.

At the show, Gareth Renninson‘s ‘Candela’ won the Foundry Associate Prize for his periscope-like lighting design. Crafted from copper and aluminium, it is finished with a clean and uniform matte black coat. The rechargeable lamp flickers like a real candle, and it encourages human interaction with the product. A simple wave of the hand in front will ‘ignite the flame’, and it can be turned off by covering the flame with the hand.

I was captivated by Manon Mcevoy‘s striking Shell lamp when I saw it at the show. Shell light is a dual-purpose product. The shade has been designed to allow control over the illumination of the light, so it can be used as a reading lamp when opened or as a mood lamp when closed.

Dominik Williams’ Helix Lamp is another unusual lamp that caught my eye. Made of 100 sheets of laser-cut corrugated cardboard which revolves around an acrylic LED tube, the lamp looks more like a sculpture. The designer aims to change consumers’ perceptions about the suitability and finish of materials for homeware products.


Product & industrial designs


Jordon Braybrook P1140092-compressedHenri Holz's Visualising StatisticsP1140018-compressed new designers 2015

Top left: Jordan Braybrook and his Orloc; Henry Buckley’s Mono; Top right:  2nd row: Henri Holz‘s Visualising Statistics; Bottom left: Allure Lincoln‘s products for home


We as shoppers seldom pay attention to issues like supermarket trolley theft, but apparently, this is a serious issue that all major supermarkets have to deal with these days. I spoke to Jordan Braybrook who has created a new safety mechanism Orloc that tackles this issue. It will be cool to see this device in the market one day.

Virgin Atlantic award winner Henry Buckley has created a multi-domestic appliance called ‘Mono’, which aims to reduce the production of 54 million tons of electronic waste annually. It is a universal power module that incorporates a motor, electronic circuitry and a battery pack, it displays vast versatility in that it works for a range of household appliances. Safe and reliable, the motor powered base works for three common appliances such as an air purifier, vacuum cleaner and dust pan.


Ceramics & glassware


Katia Sophie GoetschRachel ChanJoe WardJack Wigzell

Top: ‘Kruustkruut; Gruenkohl’ by Katia Sophie Goetsch; 2nd row: Rachel Chan’s Sculptural vessels made of unwanted socks and Jesmonite; 3rd row: ‘Anatomie’ by Joe Ward; Bottom row: ‘Ashes to ashes’ by Jack Wigzell


I met Rachel Chan, the 3D design graduate who has created some wonderful sculptural vessels from unwanted socks and Jesmonite. Who would have thought that unwanted socks can be turned into art? I love the fact that all vessels have different patterns, shapes and colours on them, so delightful!

I also found Joe Ward ‘s ‘Anatomie’ range absolutely stunning. Inspired by Barbara Hepworth and Henry Moore, the crystal glass is hand blown with the assistance of award-winning glassblower Ingrid Pears MBE, and sits on natural stones found on the coast of Lake Windermere. ‘Anatomie’ is a celebration of the myriad of forms found naturally in the wilderness, with the natural stone representing the inter-dependence of nature.

Jack Wigzell‘s ‘Ashes to ashes’ is an intriguing concept that incorporates cremated ashes into glass. The final glassware will then be distributed to family and friends, where they can get together to remember or celebrate the life of the deceased. The set also comes with a plinth, so that it can be turned into a memorial display. I think this is a great idea that gives a new meaning or scope to the term ‘personalisation’.


Illustrations and graphics


Sam NordenHolly MartinCatherine Cooksley Alex McGinnJames Rae

Top: Sam Norden; 2nd row: Holly Martin; 3rd row: 4th row left: Catherine Cooksley; 4th row right: Alex McGinn; Bottom: James Rae



LSE’s Saw Swee Hock Student Centre

Saw Swee Hock Student Centre Saw Swee Hock Student Centre


A few months ago, I walked past a non-orthogonal shaped brick building in Holborn that caught my attention. Later, I learnt that this striking Riba Stirling Prize-nominated building is London School of Economics’ Saw Swee Hock student centre designed by Irish architectural practice O’Donnell + Tuomey (Sheila O’Donnell and John Tuomey) completed in 2014.

And when I found out the architects were conducting a guide tour of the building followed by a talk as part of the London festival of architecture, I was eager to sign up for this event.


Saw Swee Hock Student Centre Saw Swee Hock Student Centre Saw Swee Hock Student Centre Saw Swee Hock Student Centre Saw Swee Hock Student Centre


Given the limitations of the site, the architects did an outstanding job in creating an original building that merges well with its surroundings. At the beginning of the tour, the architects lead us down the adjacent streets and explained how the streetscape played the part in shaping the building.

The multifunctional building accommodates a large music venue, pub, cafe, multi-faith centre, dance studios, careers library, gym and offices. It is designed with accessibility and inclusive design as key considerations.


Saw Swee Hock Student Centre Saw Swee Hock Student Centre Saw Swee Hock Student Centre Saw Swee Hock Student Centre Saw Swee Hock Student Centre Saw Swee Hock Student Centre Saw Swee Hock Student Centre Saw Swee Hock Student Centre london view


This building can be seen as a homage to brick and bricklaying craftsmanship. There are 46 standard shape bricks and 127 specially designed and shaped ones. A total of 173,377 solid and perforated (allowing daylight in) bricks were precisely mapped on the facade before construction began. Inside, the building is supported by steel columns and concrete, it also feels airy and bright as a result of the floor to ceiling windows.


Saw Swee Hock Student Centre Saw Swee Hock Student Centre Saw Swee Hock Student Centre Saw Swee Hock Student Centre Saw Swee Hock Student Centre Saw Swee Hock Student Centre Saw Swee Hock Student Centre


I especially love the concrete staircases. The angular staircases act as a prominent feature over several floors, but on the top floors and basement, they are replaced by spiral ones. The beauty of concrete is accentuated through the meticulous design.


Sheila O'Donnell and John Tuomey

Sheila O’Donnell and John Tuomey


This building somewhat reflects the impression I received from the Irish couple: humble, unconventional and heedful. Unlike many conspicuous buildings designed by celebrity architects these days, this building pays respect to its surroundings, it is functional, user-friendly and yet original. Our city needs more buildings like this rather than glass skyscrapers that convey the ego and ambition of the property developers, architects and capitalists.


King’s Cross Pond Club & the New Horizon pavilions

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The pond club is the new art installation at King’s Cross ongoing redevelopment


Last month, I attended a tour of the Of Soil and Water: King’s Cross Pond Club organised by property developmer Argent ( responsible for the regeneration of King’s Cross) as part of the London festival of architecture. If you are not keen on London’s public lidos or the natural ponds in Hampstead Heath, then perhaps this cool new natural pond will appeal to you. The 40-metre man-made fresh water public pond is the first of its kind in the UK. The chemical-free water is purified through a natural, closed-loop process process using wetland and submerged water plants to filter the water and keep it clear.


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The pond is designed by architects Ooze (Eva Pfannes and Sylvain Hartenberg) and artist Marjetica Potrč as part of the King’s Cross public art program RELAY. The installation aims to make the public reconsider their relationship with nature, the urban environment and the undeveloped spaces.

Here is a video about the project:



We were told by the project manager that the project was initially proposed as a permanent installation, but it was rejected by the Camden council due to oppositions from local residents. The project was eventually approved for a trial period of two years, and the developer hopes that its popularity and positive impact will convince the council to extend its lifespan.


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Nature in and around the pond


What I love about this pond club is its landscape design, not only it is surrounded by seasonal plants and flowers, it also has plants growing inside the pond. Situated next to Global Generation’s Skip Garden, the theme of ecology and sustainability is discernible.

There are 8 changing rooms, outdoor showers and lockers, accompanied by bold red pictogram. Swimmers can pre-book their sessions/slots online, and it is limited to only 163 a day.

I think this project is highly commendable and I hope that it will turn into a permanent feature after the end of its 2-year period.


Lewis Cubitt Park

Lewis Cubitt Park and the New Horizon temporary Irish pavilion


After the visit to the pond club, I walked over to the Lewis Cubitt Square to see the two temporary pavilions designed collaboratively by four Irish practices: Clancy Moore, TAKA, Steve Larkin and Hall McKnight for London festival of Architecture’s New Horizon_Architecture from Ireland exhibition.

The collaboration was part of ID 2015, the year-long celebration of Irish design. The New Horizon initiative was conceived and curated by Raymund Ryan and Nathalie Weadick, and it explored the theme of the festival, “Work in Progress”, at a city scale.


Red Pavilion by TAKA, Clancy Moore and Steve LarkinRed Pavilion by TAKA, Clancy Moore and Steve LarkinRed Pavilion by TAKA, Clancy Moore and Steve LarkinRed Pavilion by TAKA, Clancy Moore and Steve LarkinRed Pavilion by TAKA, Clancy Moore and Steve Larkin


Red Pavilion by TAKA, Clancy Moore and Steve Larkin


The bright red pavilion was designed by three Dublin practices: TAKA, Clancy Moore and Steve Larkin. Their approach was to emphasise the collective fabric of cities and to doubt arbitrary expression. It acted as a temporary piece of civic infrastructure, drawing people up from the square and enabling them to explore from above.



Yellow Pavilion by Hall McKnightYellow Pavilion by Hall McKnightYellow Pavilion by Hall McKnightYellow Pavilion by Hall McKnight

Yellow Pavilion by Hall McKnight


The Yellow Pavilion designed by Belfast practice Hall McKnight was a homage to brick. The pavilion was manufactured from a kit of pieces cut from boards and assembled in units. Inside it was a collection/installation of bricks that spoke of a city as a work in progress. The architects saw the bricks as a testimony of both the old and new city.